Works Cited


Ed. Schroeder, Wallace. The New York Times Book of Movies. New York, NY: Universe. Print.

Emma-Lindsay Squier, The Atlantic Constitution, April 17, 1921. Found on “Why Doesn’t Hollywood Hire More Women? Let’s Ask the Most Famous Female Director of 1921!”, posted June 4, 2017. Web. Last accessed April 28, 2021.

Merriam Dictionary s.v. “intolerance,” accessed January 24, 2021

Shelley Stamp, “Lois Weber,” Women Pioneers Film Project, New York, N.Y.: Columbia University Libraries, 2013. Web. Last accessed April 28, 2021. Found in “Common Careers #1: Lois Weber,” by Ariel Schudson, Movies Are My Boyfriend, Web, last accessed April 28, 2021.

Shelley Stamp, “Women in Early Filmmaking: No Finer Calling,” Pioneers: First Women Filmmakers, New York, N.Y.: Kino Lorber, 2018.

Movies and Videos:

“Epic Babylonia Crain Shots from Intolerance (1916) (HD),”, uploaded by, published December 20, 2013, accessed January 24, 2021.

The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, directed by Robert Wiene, (1920; Berlin, Germany: Decla-Bioscope AG), DVD.

Intolerance, directed by D.W. Griffith (1916; Culver City, CA: Triangle Film Corporation, 1916) Digital

What Do Men Want? dir. Lois Weber (1921; New York, N.Y.; 2018), DVD.


Roger Ebert, “Reality at the Edge of the World,”, Web., published 5 September 2005, last accessed 5 July 2021.

Tristan Ettleman, “Does It Matter If Nanook of the North Isn’t Exactly True to Life?”, Tristan Ettleman, Web., published 3 May 2019, las accessed 5 July 2021.

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